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Anatomical Deformities in Hallux Valgus

Hallux valgus deformity is a complex deformity of the first ray that frequently is accompanied by deformity and symptoms in the lesser toes.

There are two forms of the deformity:

See also: Foot Anatomy

What are the anatomical deformities in Hallux Valgus?

There are multiple changes in the bony and soft tissue anatomy as hallux valgus progresses:

  • The proximal phalanx deviates laterally.
  • The first metatarsal head deviates medially leaving the sesamoid complex laterally translated relative to the metatarsal head.
  • Sesamoids remain within the respective head of the flexor hallucis brevis tendon and are attached to the base of the proximal phalanx via the sesamoido-phalangeal ligament.
  • Medial MTP joint capsule becomes stretched and attenuated while the lateral capsule becomes contracted.
  • Adductor tendon becomes a deforming force.
  • Medial MTP joint capsule becomes stretched and attenuated while the lateral capsule becomes contracted.
  • Lateral deviation of extensor hallux longus tendon (EHL) further contributes to deformity.
  • Plantar and lateral migration of the abductor hallucis causes muscle to plantar flex and pronate phalanx.
See also: Adult Hallux Valgus
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