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Knee Meniscus Anatomy

 Knee Meniscus Anatomy

Knee Meniscus Anatomy is a vital part of the knee joint, it acts to prevent the deterioration and degeneration of articular cartilage, and the onset and development of osteoarthritis. For this reason, research into meniscus repair has been the recipient of particular interest from the orthopedic and bioengineering communities.

See Also: Knee Ligaments Anatomy

Knee Meniscus functions:

  1. Knee Meniscus acts as a joint filler.
  2. Compensate for gross incongruity between femoral and tibial articulating surfaces.
  3. Prevent capsular and synovial impingement during flexion-extension movements.
  4. joint lubrication function, helping to distribute synovial fluid throughout the joint and aiding the nutrition of the articular cartilage.
  5. Contribute to stability in all planes but are especially important rotary stabilizers.
  6. Reduce the stress on the articular cartilage; they prevent mechanical damage to both the chondrocytes and the extracellular matrix
  7. Shock or energy absorbing functions (from 40% to 60% of the superimposed weight in the standing position are carried by the menisci).
See Also: Knee Meniscus Tear
meniscus of the knee
Meniscus of the knee

Knee Meniscus Composition:

Fibers of the meniscus
Fibers of the meniscus

Knee Meniscus Blood Supply:

The main blood supply to the meniscus of the knee comes from:

  1. The lateral geniculate artery: Supply 10-25 % from peripheral region of the lateral meniscus.
  2. Medial geniculate artery: Supply 20-30 % from peripheral region of the medial meniscus.

There are three vascular zones of the Knee Meniscus:

Meniscus blood supply
Meniscus blood supply

Medial Meniscus Anatomy

Lateral Meniscus Anatomy

The menisci follow the tibial condyles during flexion and extension, but during rotation they follow the femur and move on the tibia.

Meniscal injury Clinical Examination

In case of meniscal injuries, the special tests used to examine the knee for meniscal injury are:

  1. Lateral McMurray Test for lateral meniscus.
  2. Medial McMurray Test for medial meniscus.
  3. Thessaly test.
  4. Ege’s Test.
  5. Apley grinding Test.
Meniscus blood supply
Meniscus blood supply

References

  1. Makris EA, Hadidi P, Athanasiou KA. The knee meniscus: structure-function, pathophysiology, current repair techniques, and prospects for regeneration. Biomaterials. 2011 Oct;32(30):7411-31. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.06.037. Epub 2011 Jul 18. PMID: 21764438; PMCID: PMC3161498.
  2. Campbel’s Operative Orthopaedics 12th edition Book.

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