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Special Test

Yocum Test for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome

The Yocum test is an active test that is used to evaluate the subacromial impingement syndrome of the shoulder.

How do you perform the Yocum Test?

With the patient sitting/ standing the hand of the patient is placed on the opposite shoulder and the elbow of the tested side is passively raised up by the examiner.

See Also: Neer Test
Yocum Test shoulder

What does a positive Yocum Test mean?

The test is positive if pain is elicited during this maneuver.

Accuracy

A study on 30 patients with new onset of shoulder pain (the reference standard was subacromial impingement confirmed by MRI), the sensitivity and specificity was:

  • Sensitivity: 79%
  • Specificity: 40%

and for subacromial bursitis confirmed by MRI, the sensitivity and specificity was 80% and 36%, respectively.

A study comparing the Neer test, Hawkins Kennedy test, and Yocum test found all three to demonstrate a high sensitivity for diagnosing subacromial impingement.

References

  1. Silva L, Andreu JL, Munoz P, et al. Accuracy of physical examination in subacromial impingement syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008;47:679-683.
  2. Leroux JL, Thomas E, Bonnel F, Blotman F. Diagnostic value of clinical tests for shoulder impingement syndrome. Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1995 Jun;62(6):423-8. PMID: 7552206.
  3. Rudert M, Wulker M. Clinical evaluation. In: Wulleer N, Mansat M, Fu F, editors. Shoulder surgery: an illustrated textbook. London: Martin Dunitz; 2001.
  4. Dutton’s Orthopaedic Examination, Evaluation, And Intervention 3rd Edition.
  5. Netter’s Orthopaedic Clinical Examination An Evidence-Based Approach 3rd Edition Book.
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