Hello Surgeon

X

How can we help you today?

Special Test

Sorensen Test

Sorensen Test is used to evaluate the hip and back extensor muscles endurance. It was described by Hansen in 1964. In 1984, following a study by Biering Sorensen, this test became known as the “Sorensen test” and gained considerable popularity as a tool reported to predict low back pain within the next year in males.

The Sorensen Test measures the amount of time a patient can hold the unsupported upper body in a horizontal prone position with the lower body fixed to the examining table.

The muscles assessed in this test are:

  1. Iliocostalis lumborum,
  2. iliocostalis thoracis,
  3. longissimus thoracis,
  4. spinalis thoracis,
  5. semispinalis thoracis,
  6. multifidus,
  7. rotatores,
  8. latissimus dorsi,
  9. quadratus lumborum.
See Also: Hip Muscles Anatomy

How do you perform the Sorensen Test?

In the Sorensen test, the patient is positioned with the torso off the table with the upper border of the iliac crests aligned with the edge of the table. The patient’s hips and legs are stabilized with straps.

With the arms crossed over the chest, the patient is asked to maintain the upper body in a horizontal position. The examiner times the duration that the patient can hold the position.

See Also: Thomas Test 
Sorensen Test
The patient is positioned with the torso off the table with the upper border of the iliac crests aligned with the edge of the table. The patient’s hips and legs are stabilized with straps
Sorensen Test
With the arms crossed over the chest, the patient is asked to maintain the upper body in a horizontal position

What does a positive Sorensen Test mean?

Decreased back extensor endurance is associated with development and persistence of low back pain.

The average duration for young, adult men and women is 146±51 seconds and 189±60 seconds, respectively. In another study with a broader age range, the average endurance time was 113±46 seconds, with decreasing endurance with increasing age.

The extension endurance test
The extension endurance test

Sorensen Test Modification

For the modified Sorensen test, the patient is prone, with the hands behind the back or by the sides. The patient is instructed to raise the chest off the table by extending the lumbar spine to approximately 30 degrees and holding the position.

modified Sorensen Test
A modification of the Sorensen test

Notes

Individuals with a higher body mass index fatigue more quickly. Males with chronic low back pain demonstrate shorter durations, indicating faster time to fatigue than healthy individuals.

Good test–retest reliability for the Sorensen has been demonstrated in asymptomatic patients (0.77) and patients with nonspecific low back pain (0.80).

Lateral Abdominals Endurance

The patient is side-lying with the legs straight and the body resting on the flexed elbow. Alternatively, the patient’s knees are flexed. Muscles Assessed Internal oblique, external oblique, quadratus lumborum.

The patient lifts the pelvis off the table while maintaining the spine in a neutral (neither flexed nor extended) position a side bridge. The hand of the uninvolved arm crosses the chest to the opposite shoulder. The examiner times the duration that the patient can maintain the position. Repeat the test on the opposite side.

A right-to-left difference of greater than 5% suggests an imbalance. On average, healthy males can maintain the position for approximately 94±34 [R] and 97±35 [L] seconds, and females can maintain the position for 72±31 [R] and 77±35 [L] seconds.

Lateral Abdominals Endurance
Lateral Abdominals Endurance

References

  1. Demoulin C, Vanderthommen M, Duysens C, Crielaard JM. Spinal muscle evaluation using the Sorensen test: a critical appraisal of the literature. Joint Bone Spine. 2006 Jan;73(1):43-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2004.08.002. PMID: 16461206.
  2. McGill, SM, et al: Endurance times for low back stabilization exercises: clinical targets for testing and training from a normal database. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 80:941, 1999.
  3. Reiman, MP, et al: Comparison of different trunk endurance testing methods in college-aged individuals. Int J Sports Phys Ther, 7:533, 2012.
  4. Handrakis, JP, et al: Key characteristics of low back pain and disability in college-aged adults: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 93:1217, 2012.
  5. Adedoyin, RA, et al: Endurance of low back musculature: normative data for adults. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil, 24:101, 2011.
  6. Süüden, E: Low back muscle fatigue during Sorensen endurance test in patients with chronic low back pain: relationship between electromyographic spectral compression and anthropometric characteristics. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol, 48:185, 2008.
Angle Meter App for Android & iOS
  • Lifetime product updates
  • Install on one device
  • Lifetime product support
One-Click Purchase
Orthopedic FRCS VIVAs Quiz
  • Lifetime product updates
  • Install on one device
  • Lifetime product support
One-Click Purchase
Top 12 Best Free Orthopedic Apps
  • Lifetime product updates
  • Install on one device
  • Lifetime product support
One-Click Purchase
All-in-one Orthopedic App
  • Lifetime product updates
  • Install on one device
  • Lifetime product support
One-Click Purchase