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Adductor Hallucis Muscle Anatomy & Function

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Adductor Hallucis Muscle Anatomy & Function

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The Adductor Hallucis muscle is a critical component of the foot’s muscular architecture, contributing to the complex movements and stability of the foot.

Adductor Hallucis Muscle Anatomy

Adductor Hallucis Muscle is divided into two distinct heads: the oblique head and the transverse head. The oblique head originates from the bases of the second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones and the sheath of the peroneus longus tendon. In contrast, the transverse head has its origins more superficially, at the metatarsophalangeal joints’ capsules and the deep transverse metatarsal ligament. These heads converge towards their insertion on the lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the big toe, with some fibers attaching to the medial sesamoid bone.

See Also: Foot Anatomy

Functionality

The primary function of the Adductor Hallucis muscle is to facilitate adduction and flexion of the big toe. It plays a vital role in stabilizing the toe during the push-off phase of gait, contributing to efficient locomotion. Additionally, the Adductor Hallucis muscle assists in maintaining the transverse arch of the foot, thereby influencing overall foot posture and mechanics.

OriginOblique Head: Bases of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsal bones and sheath of the peroneus longus tendon.
Transverse Head: Capsules of the metatarsophalangeal joints and deep transverse metatarsal ligament.
InsertionLateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the big toe, with some fibers attaching to the medial sesamoid bone.
InnervationLateral plantar nerve (S1, S2).
Blood SupplyArterial supply primarily from branches of the plantar metatarsal arteries, which are branches of the posterior tibial artery.
ActionAdduction and flexion of the big toe; stabilization of the transverse arch of the foot during locomotion.
Adductor Hallucis muscle anatomy

Clinical Significance

A thorough understanding of the Adductor Hallucis muscle anatomy is crucial for diagnosing and treating foot-related pathologies. Conditions such as hallux valgus, metatarsalgia, and sesamoiditis often involve the Adductor Hallucis muscle. Overuse, improper footwear, or biomechanical abnormalities can lead to Adductor Hallucis muscle strain or dysfunction, manifesting in pain, decreased mobility, and compromised foot mechanics.

Diagnostic Approaches

When assessing conditions related to the Adductor Hallucis muscle, healthcare professionals employ a variety of diagnostic tools. Physical examination, focusing on tenderness, swelling, and range of motion, is fundamental. Imaging modalities, including ultrasound and MRI, are invaluable in visualizing the muscle’s structure, detecting abnormalities, and guiding treatment plans.

Treatment Strategies

Treatment of Adductor Hallucis muscle-related disorders encompasses a range of conservative to surgical interventions, depending on the severity and underlying cause. Conservative measures include physical therapy, orthotics, and modifications in footwear to alleviate stress on the muscle. In cases where conservative management fails to provide relief, surgical options may be considered to correct anatomical deformities or release tension in the muscle.

References & More

  1. Clinically Oriented Anatomy – 8th Edition
  2. Owens S, Thordarson DB. The adductor hallucis revisited. Foot Ankle Int. 2001 Mar;22(3):186-91. doi: 10.1177/107110070102200303. PMID: 11310858. Pubmed
  3. Arakawa T, Tokita K, Miki A, Terashima T. Anatomical study of human adductor hallucis muscle with respect to its origin and insertion. Ann Anat. 2003 Dec;185(6):585-92. doi: 10.1016/S0940-9602(03)80133-4. PMID: 14704005. Pubmed
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