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Myotomes of the Upper Limb

Myotomes of the Upper Limb include the muscles that is innervated by the cervical spine roots C1 to C1 including the first thoracic root T1.

Cervical Myotomes

  1. Neck flexion: C1–C2
  2. Neck side flexion: C3 and cranial nerve XI
  3. Shoulder elevation: C4 and cranial nerve XI
  4. Shoulder abduction/shoulder lateral rotation: C5
  5. Elbow flexion and/or wrist extension: C6
  6. Elbow extension and/or wrist flexion: C7
  7. Thumb extension and/or ulnar deviation: C8
  8. Abduction and/or adduction of hand intrinsics: T1
See Also: Cervical Spine Range of Motion

Detailed Myotomes of the Upper Limb

Nerve RootActionMuscles
C1-C2Neck flexion Rectus lateralis, rectus capitis anterior, longus capitis, longus coli, longus cervicis, sternocleidomastoid
C3Neck side flexion Longus capitis, longus cervicis, trapezius, scalenus medius
C4Shoulder elevation Diaphragm, trapezius, levator scapulae, scalenus anterior, scalenus medius
C5Shoulder abduction Rhomboid major and minor, deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, biceps, scalenus anterior and medius
C6Elbow flexion and wrist extensionSerratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, subscapularis, teres major, pectoralis major (clavicular head), biceps, coracobrachialis, brachialis, brachioradialis, supinator, extensor carpi radialis longus, scalenus anterior, medius and posterior
C7Elbow extension and wrist flexionSerratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major (sternal head), pectoralis minor, triceps, pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, scalenus medius and posterior
C8Thumb extension and ulnar deviationPectoralis major (sternal head), pectoralis minor, triceps, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus, flexor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor indicis, abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, scalenus medius and posterior
T1Hand intrinsicsFlexor digitorum profundus, intrinsic muscles of the hand (except extensor pollicis brevis), flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis
Muscles listed may be supplied by additional nerve roots; only primary nerve root sources are listed
See Also: Dermatome Distribution
Upper Limb Myotomes
Myotomes of the Upper Limb

References & More

  1. Orthopedic Physical Assessment by David J. Magee, 7th Edition.
  2. Javed O, Maldonado KA, Ashmyan R. Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Muscles. [Updated 2023 Jul 24]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482410/
  3. Bell SW, Brown MJ, Hems TJ. Refinement of myotome values in the upper limb: Evidence from brachial plexus injuries. Surgeon. 2017 Feb;15(1):1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.surge.2015.08.004. Epub 2015 Sep 26. PMID: 26409623. Pubmed
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